Civil Justice Council to review Pre-action Protocols

The Civil Justice Council (CJC) is currently conducting a review of Pre-action Protocols (PAPs).


The review will look at all aspects of PAPs including their purpose, whether they are working effectively in practice and what reforms, if any, are required.


The CJC is particularly interested in looking at how PAPs are working for litigants with limited means; the costs associated with PAP compliance; the potential of PAPs in online dispute resolution, and the potential for PAPs to be streamlined. However, our focus is not closed, and we are conducting a preliminary survey to obtain feedback and suggestions about what ought to be the focus of the review, and the priorities for reform.


Accordingly, we want to hear from anyone with experience of, or an interest in, PAPs including the judiciary, practitioners, litigants, academics, and representative organisations working in the civil justice system.


The terms of reference of the review are set out below but these are subject to revision, and may change depending on the responses we receive to the survey. Therefore, we encourage as many interested persons as possible to have their say.


A link to the survey can be found online.


And a list of PAPs currently in force can be found on the Ministry of Justice website.

The survey will be open until Friday 18 December 2020.

CJC Pre-action Protocol Review Provisional Terms of Reference

  1. What amendments to the PAPs, or associated guidance to LIPs, would be desirable to draw litigants’ attention to the effects of Jet2 Holidays Limited v Hughes & Hughes [2019] EWCA Civ 1858?

  2. Are there any PAPs that are not fulfilling the purposes of PAPs as originally envisioned by Lord Woolf and/or the purposes currently set out in CPR PD 18? What function should PAPs perform in the 2020s?

  3. Are there major inconsistencies between PAPs and are these justified by the differences in the litigation to which they relate?

  4. Are the “soft sanctions” for non-compl